The report is compiled by the People’s Trust for Endangered Species and the British Hedgehog Preservation Society and updates previous findings and describes the current status of Britain’s hedgehogs a decade after they were made a priority species for conservation.
The most recent analysis, in the report, shows a stark contrast between rural and urban populations. Rural populations are declining while urban populations are stabilising or increasing.
Conservation Strategy for West-European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in the United Kingdom (2015-2025)
This document summarises the main threats facing the hedgehog in the UK, and plans actions for the next decade and builds on previous strategic work.
The overall aims of the strategy are:
1) (urban/suburban areas): Stabilise populations within urban/suburban areas by 2025.
We define the scope of this aim as the establishment of stable hedgehog populations in a major settlement in every county across the UK.
2) (rural areas): To understand and demonstrate the ecological parameters underpinning viable rural hedgehog populations by 2025.
Hedgehog natural history
Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) occur throughout most of Europe. In Great Britain and Ireland, they are widely distributed but absent from some of the Scottish islands.
In rural areas, hedgehogs live along woodland edges and hedgerows in meadowland and rough pasture. In towns, they make use of gardens and amenity grassland, as well as other green spaces. Between November and the end of March, when food is scarce, hedgehogs hibernate to conserve energy, remaining largely inactive. During the rest of the year, they are mostly nocturnal, moving over areas of 10-50ha during the summer, and 1-2km in a single night.
The latest 'State of the UK's Birds report, 2017' (SUKB) is now available. The report highlights the effect of climate change on resident and migratory birds. The report acknowledges the huge contribution to bird monitoring across the UK is thanks to the dedicated BBS volunteers and Regional Organisers.
The report notes that birds in the UK are showing changes in abundance and distribution, predominantly moving northwards, in a way that is consistent with a changing climate.
Average UK temperatures have increased by nearly 1 °C since the 1980s and sea surface temperatures have increased. Resident species such as great tits, wrens and nuthatches appear to be benefitting from milder winters.
Great tit, swallow, chiffchaff and willow warbler have advanced their egg-laying date; great tits lay their eggs on average 11 days earlier than they did in 1968.
Short distance migrants such as Blackcaps and chiffchaffs have increased by 289% and 104% respectively since 1970. Due to milder winters in the UK and Europe.
For UK seabirds, declining productivity associated with warming seas and changes to food abundance and habitat suitability is projected to shift species ranges northward over the next century including species such as kittiwakes, fulmars and puffins, as well as common, Arctic and little terns.
Previously scarce species, such as Cetti’s warbler and Dartford warbler have recently expanded their ranges. Both birds have colonised Wales. In the case of Dartford warbler, the European range of this species (classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Global Red List) is likely to contract and UK will become increasingly important for the global conservation of this species.
Text modified from BTO source
Image House Sparrow © BTO
Meadow brown © Sean McHugh
A review of the scarce and threatened spiders
(Araneae) of Great Britain
The British Arachnological Society have released a report on the state of GB spiders. The report commissioned by NRW features a 'Red List' of species regarded as being at threat of extinction and shows that 16% of our species are threatened; 18 species are considered Critically Endangered, 30 Endangered and 54 Vulnerable. Three species are thought to have become extinct. An Amber List of species that are not yet considered at risk of extinction but for which the severity of their decline give cause for conservation concern has also been produced. The assessments use data from the National Spider Recording Scheme for England, Scotland and Wales that covers the period up until the end of 2013.
The report draws attention to the conservation needs of spiders and highlights the remarkable efforts of the volunteering recording community.
Cors Barfog © NRW
The Status of the Marsh Fritillary in Wales: 2016
How did marsh fritillary populations fare in 2016? The latest report from Butterfly Conservations with fanatastic support from the volunteer network sheds light on the status of marsh fritillary in Wales.
In summary, the 2016 results mean an addition of five populations and a ‘loss’ of three populations for the most recent five-year period (2012-2016). The ‘lost’ sites still support areas of breeding habitat and may be reoccupied in the future, as would be expected in a functioning marsh fritillary metapopulation.
The ‘net gain’ of two populations is encouraging in what was otherwise a lean year. It is likely that these gains are due to better recording effort rather than genuine site colonisations in 2016.Carmarthenshire holds 39% of current Welsh populations; all three of the new sites found in 2016 were in this county. Only 10% of populations are in North Wales, and it is unfortunate that one of the ‘lost’ sites in 2016 was in Merionethshire. This continues the trend of recent losses in north-west Wales; further conservation action is needed to secure the future of the Marsh Fritillary in north Wales.
Image © Brecknock Wildlife Trust
Text adapted from Butterfly Conservation source
TV nature personality, Iolo Williams, has presented Conwy County Borough Council with a certificate to mark the County’s achievement of Bee Friendly Status – the first Local Authority in Wales to gain the accreditation.
Pollinators including bees, butterflies, moths and beetles, are in decline and they are essential to pollinate commercial crops, soft fruit, orchards, horticultural crops, and wild and garden flowers.
This led the Welsh Government to launch the Welsh Action Plan for Pollinators, which aims to reverse this decline with a number of measures, including the Bee Friendly initiative.
To gain Bee Friendly status, the Council had to demonstrate how it met the four goals of being Bee Friendly: providing pollinator-friendly food sources, places for pollinators to live, being committed to avoiding chemicals that harm pollinators, and involving the community in the initiatives.
The Council’s approach to management of parks, gardens and other areas includes a range of activities which support the Action Plan for Pollinators. The Council has over 40 biodiversity areas, roadside verges and 21 nature reserves which are managed to encourage pollinators. It has taken action like replacing seasonal bedding plants with herbaceous, perennial plant schemes which provide a food source for pollinators. And the Council works with communities holding events like those to build bee habitats and with schools with initiatives like hosting visits to the Great Orme to learn about habitats.
Cllr Dave Cowans, Cabinet Member for the Highways, Environment & Sustainability Portfolio, said, “We take our responsibilities for biodiversity very seriously and the need to address the decline in our pollinators is something that concerns everyone. We’re really proud to be the first Council to achieve this in recognition of the work that we carry out.”
Lesley Griffiths, AM, Cabinet Secretary for Environment and Rural Affairs, said, “It’s great news that Conwy County Borough Council is the first Local Authority in Wales to gain Bee Friendly status. This is the first national scheme of its kind in the UK and I hope we will see many more of our Local Authorities becoming Bee Friendly soon.”
Photo: (Left-Right) Iwan Davies (Chief Executive, Conwy County Borough Council), Cllr Brian Cossey (Chair, Conwy County Borough Council), Iolo Williams, Simon Bilsborough (Welsh Government, Land, Nature and Forestry Division)
Text and image sourced from Conwy County Borough Council
HLF’s Landscape Partnership programme has recently awarded 3 flaghsip projects in Wales significant funding to deliver landscape-scale projects for people and wildlife.
Living Levels Partnership (£2,865,300)
The Gwent Levels is a South Wales estuarine landscape, rich in both historical and natural heritage. Reclaimed from the sea in Roman times, the land is a criss-crossed network of fertile fields and historic watercourses, known locally as reens. This unassuming yet appealing landscape of high skies and low horizons lends it its status as one of the finest examples of a ‘natural’ landscape really crafted by people in Europe; and one of the largest tracts of bio-diverse wet grassland left in the UK. Living Levels formally brings together like-minded stakeholders to work together to collectively restore, enhance and protect the historic area for all to enjoy. The Living Levels is a partnership that will work with the local communities and farmers of the Gwent Wildlife Trust.
Clwydian Range and Dee Valley (£1,382,300)
The project centres on the landscape of the Dee Valley and the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal World Heritage Site, and is focussing on the journeys that have been, and continue to be, a key feature of the area which is cut by the canal, Telford’s A5 and the River Dee. Visitors have drawn inspiration from this beautiful valley in art and poetry since the 18th century, and it continues to captivate tourists in search of the ‘sublime’ to this day. But this landscape is under extreme pressure, with high numbers of visitors drawn to what are often its most fragile sites. The communities on its doorstep, born from the area’s industrial past, are now less connected to the benefits the landscape offers. The five-year project will invest in key visitor sites and engage communities living locally, while reinterpreting this rich landscape for a new generation.
Elan Links – People, Nature & Water (£1,713,300)
Elan lies at the heart of the Cambrian Mountains in Mid Wales. Its unique landscape combines remote hill land, isolated farmsteads, steep-sided wooded valleys and an extraordinary feat of Victorian engineering that brought clean water to the then rapidly expanding industrial city of Birmingham. Today, Elan’s 20,000 hectares - 1% of Wales - is a haven for wildlife and people. Its 154,000 visitors a year enjoy the breath-taking scenery, nature, recreational facilities and extensive free educational resources for schools, families and communities. The project’s vision is to further develop all aspects of this special place to benefit people, as well as the environment itself.
Text taken from HLF source
The Vincent Wildlife Trust (VWT) is aiming to restore a healthy population of pine martens, a native Welsh mammal, to Wales. The pine marten (Martes martes) is a cat-sized member of the weasel family that preferentially lives in woodlands. Pine martens were once common and widespread in Wales but the population has undergone a severe decline and has fallen so low that it is now very unlikely to recover without intervention. The VWT is planning to reinforce the population by translocating pine martens from a healthy population in Scotland. This will provide a boost to numbers and increase genetic diversity. The Trust has carried out a thorough feasibility study, part of which involved identifying suitable potential release sites. An area of mid Wales has been selected as a release site, as it has extensive woodland habitat, low density of road networks and minimal conflict with human interests such as game shooting. A small number of pine martens will be taken from sites in Scotland and, once released in Wales, will be intensively radio-tracked. This will allow us to monitor where they establish territories and assess the success of the release. The restoration of a healthy pine marten population will offer great potential for wildlife tourism through people visiting Wales to see pine martens, as occurs in Scotland. It may also benefit woodlands and woodland managers if pine martens reduce grey squirrel populations, as has been the case in Ireland.
To find out more about the project visit the pine marten recovery project website
Image © Vincent Wildlife Trust
Summer meadows with splashes of colourful wild flowers among the grass sward may be a distant memory now autumn is here but it's a good time to reflect and to look forward to next years' display. The extent of Welsh Lowland Meadows is a fraction of its former extent and the Coronation Meadows Project is seeking to help reverse the decline and some good progress has been made:
Success Stories in Wales
Record numbers of stunning greater butterfly-orchid have been counted in Gwynedd's Coronation Meadow, Caeau Tan y Bwlch, double the number of last year. Seed from this site has been used to restore three new meadows in the county, with yellow rattle and eyebright being early signs of success.
Pembrokeshire is the latest county where restoration has taken place through the project. Seed from the county Coronation Meadow, Mountain Meadows, has been spread this summer at a nearby farm to begin the process of creating around 3.5 acres of further wild flower–rich meadow in the county.
Work will soon be underway to bring a wild flower meadow back to life in Dyffryn Conwy. After many years advising people on how to restore such meadows, Dr Trevor Dines, Botanical Specialist at Plantlife, will now be getting to work himself, using donor seed from Conwy's Coronation Meadow, Moss Meadow, to restore the wild flower meadow.
You can find out more by visiting the Coronation Meadows website
Image © Plantlife Cymru
Recent announcement: Funding for a further 18 collaborative projects have been announced by Welsh Government as part of the Nature Fund initiative. Projects range from work to improve river catchments and marine ecosystems, to peatlands restoration and pond creation. This brings the total to 20 projects. For a full list of projects and supporting information please visit the Nature Fund section of the Welsh Government website.
The £6m Nature fund will be used to support activity in seven selected geographical areas or Nature Action Zones specially chosen because of the challenges and opportunities they present for biodiversity and Wales’ natural resource action. The Nature Action Zones are:
Particular priority will be given to actions that improve river catchments, fisheries management and marine ecosystems, actions that enhance natural green spaces, actions that realise potential in the uplands and action that stimulates and develops the existing interest in a payment for ecosystem services.
The Welsh Government and Natural Resources Wales will work closely with partners to deliver the Fund, which will complement work already underway in Natural Resources Wales’ three trial areas.
A small number of proposals outside of the Nature Action Zones will be considered if they demonstrate innovation and collaboration and can deliver key outcomes.
The Welsh Government will be holding events in the seven selected Nature Action Zones in order to support the development of detailed projects.
Welsh Government hosted a State of Nature Summit at the Royal Welsh Show in order to bring together wildlife organisations, land owners and businesses in Wales and agree a joint approach to halting the loss of Wales’ biodiversity.
The first stage of developing the Nature Fund was to gather ideas from stakeholders to help design the fund in a way that will support practical action that will deliver the outcomes sought. As the invitation for ideas made clear, this was not a bidding exercise.Over 450 ideas for the new fund were received from a wide range of interests. Welsh Government are currently reviewing all of these, looking at the links between ideas, the emerging themes and potential geographical groupings so we can take the fund forward and identify the right funding mechanisms. The ideas are now available on the Welsh Government website. This will enable you to see the emerging theme sand links between ideas, and where collaboration might be established going forward.
Why not take part in a national survey to help scientists monitor and protect our trees and woodland? Trees are the ‘living lungs’ of our environment and support a great variety of wildlife and help combat climate change. No specialist knowledge required
The purpose of the atlas is to display all amphibian and reptile sightings we have in Wales, and hopefully encourage you to fill in the gaps!
These records are an essential resource for conserving these wonderful creatures. We can build up a picture of species' distribution that will show where they are doing well, and not so well, which can inform conservation decisions and practical conservation on the ground.
Feasibility of re-introducing European beaver to Wales - updated beaver report now available